Laerd Statistics LoginCookies & Privacy
Overview Selecting tests Data setup Assumptions SPSS Procedure Writing up Statistical Tests

With 96 SPSS Statistics guides, use Laerd Statistics as your definitive SPSS Statistics resource.

We have a wide range of SPSS Statistics guides to help you analyse your data, from the more straightforward to the more advanced. These include statistical tests to help you determine if there are differences between groups, predict scores, identify associations, perform data reduction, and test for assumptions. We also show you how to create graphs and charts, as well as get started and set up your data in SPSS Statistics. A list of the SPSS Statistics guides in our enhanced content is provided below. You can see the new guides we're adding to the site here.

Differences between groups

Independent-samples t-test
Paired-samples t-test
One-way ANOVA
Repeated measures ANOVA
Two-way ANOVA
Factorial (three-way) ANOVA
Within-within-subjects ANOVA
Three-way repeated measures ANOVA
Three-way mixed ANOVA
Hotelling's T2
One-way MANOVA
Two-way MANOVA
One-way ANCOVA
Two-way ANCOVA
Mann-Whitney U test
Wilcoxon signed-rank test
Kruskal-Wallis H test
Jonckheere-Terpstra test
Friedman test
McNemar's test
Cochran's Q test
Sign test
Test of two proportions
Chi-square test of homogeneity (2 x C)
Chi-square test of homogeneity (R x 2)

One sample

One-sample t-test
Chi-square goodness-of-fit

Survival analysis



Cronbach's Alpha
Cohen's kappa
Fleiss' kappa
Weighted kappa
Kendall's W
Predicting scores

Linear regression
Multiple regression
Hierarchical multiple regression
Logistic regression
Ordinal regression


Pearson's correlation
Point-biserial correlation
Pearson's partial correlation
Spearman's correlation
Kendall's τb (tau-b)
Goodman and Kruskal's γ (gamma)
Somers' d
Mantel-Haenszel test of trend
Cochran-Armitage test of trend
Chi-square test for association (2x2)
Chi-square test of independence (RxC)
Fisher's exact test (2x2) for independence
Relative risk (2 x 2)
Odds ratio (2 x 2)
Goodman and Kruskal's λ (lambda)
Loglinear analysis

Data reduction

Principal components analysis


Testing for normality
Transforming data


Dichotomous moderator analysis
Graphs and charts

Bar chart
Clustered bar chart
Simple error bar chart
Simple 3-D bar chart
Simple line graph
Multiple line graph
Simple area chart
Stacked area chart
Simple scatterplot
Grouped scatterplot
Scatterplot matrix
Simple dot plot
Simple 3-D scatterplot
Simple histogram
Stacked histogram
Frequency polygon
Clustered boxplot
1-D boxplot
Pie chart
Population pyramid

Getting to know SPSS

Creating a new file
Opening a file
Data setup in SPSS
Reverse coding in SPSS
Selecting cases in SPSS
Splitting a file
Weighting cases
Mean centring continuous variables
Creating dummy variables
Calculating a total score
Calculating a mean score
Creating an ID variable
Recoding a continuous to an ordinal variable
Recoding a continuous to a dichotomous variable
Calculating a z-score (standard score)

We are adding guides all the time, and have a schedule of new SPSS Statistics guides that we will be adding in June 2024 and beyond. We also maintain a "wishlist" from our users, which forms the basis of our schedule. Therefore, if there is a particular guide you want that you don't see below, please contact us. We can let you know when we will be able to add a suitable guide to the site.