The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to determine whether there are any significant differences between the means of three or more independent (unrelated) groups. This guide will provide a brief introduction to the one-way ANOVA, including the assumptions of the test and when you should use this test. If you are familiar with the one-way ANOVA, you can skip this guide and go straight to how to run this test in SPSS by clicking here.

The one-way ANOVA compares the means between the groups you are interested in and determines whether any of those means are significantly different from each other. Specifically, it tests the null hypothesis:

where *µ* = group mean and *k* = number of groups. If, however, the one-way ANOVA returns a significant result, we accept the alternative hypothesis (H_{A}), which is that there are at least 2 group means that are significantly different from each other.

At this point, it is important to realise that the one-way ANOVA is an *omnibus* test statistic and cannot tell you which specific groups were significantly different from each other, only that at least two groups were. To determine which specific groups differed from each other, you need to use a *post-hoc* test. *Post-hoc* tests are described later in this guide.

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If you are dealing with individuals, you are likely to encounter this situation using two different types of study design:

One study design is to recruit a group of individuals and then randomly split this group into 3 or more smaller groups (i.e., each subject is allocated to one, and only one, group). You then get each group to undertake different tasks (or put them under different conditions) and measure the outcome/response on the same dependent variable. For example, a researcher wishes to know whether different pacing strategies affect the time to complete a marathon. The researcher randomly assigns a group of volunteers to either a group that (a) starts slow and then increases their speed, (b) starts fast and slows down or (c) runs at a steady pace throughout. The time to complete the marathon is the outcome (dependent) variable. This study design is illustrated schematically in the Figure below:

When you might use this test is continued on the next page.